438 HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP. British Minister for the assault upon his courier ; in short, he was thoroughly out of temper at having failed before Herat. Meanwhile he had despatched a certain Husayn Khan to England with a view to obtaining M'NeilTs recall. The envoy was armed with a portentous document in which the Shah protested that the sole object of his expedi- tion had been to rescue Persian subjects from slavery, and complained bitterly of the oppression to which he had been subjected by the British Minister. Unfortunately for the Persian representative. Lord Palmerston was Foreign Minister, and at Vienna he received an intimation that he would not be recognized as a diplomatic agent, and that in the demand for the recall of the British Minister Her Majesty's Government only saw an additional proof that Sir John McNeill had faithfully and ably performed his duty. With extreme difficulty the Persian Envoy obtained an interview with Palmerston. That statesman finally consented to formulate the demands of the British Government, which were nine in number, and included the evacuation of Ghorian and other Afghan strongholds and a written apology for the ill-treatment of the courier. Lastly it was stipulated that the signature of a commercial treaty must accompany the re-establishment of diplomatic relations. The unsuccessful envoy upon his return " ate many sticks," in other words was severely bastinadoed. The Rebellion of Aga Khan, 1840-1841.—The vitality of religious sects is remarkable, and Mohamed Shah received an unpleasant reminder of the fact in the rebellion of Aga Khan Mahallati. Descended from the Ismailis who played such a large part on the stage of Persia until Hulagu crushed tie noxious sect, as detailed in Chapter LVL, Aga Khan,1 who was a Persian nobleman and land- owner, rose in 1840 and defeated the Governor of Yezd on the borders of the Kerman province. After some further successes he was driven away from Kerman and seized the fort at Bam. Finally he fled to India, where he assisted the British in Sind and settled down in Bombay. In 1844-45 his brother Abul Hasan, known as the Sirdar^ 1 Vide Ten Thousand Miles, etc., pp. 68-70 and p. 105.